Snapshot: real estate financing in Italy

Snapshot: real estate financing in Italy

Snapshot: real estate financing in Italy


Secured lending

Speak about the kinds of actual property safety tools to be had to lenders to your jurisdiction. Who’re the everyday suppliers of actual property financing to your nation? Are there any restrictions on who might supply financing?

The standard safety device for actual property this is to be had to lenders is loan, which is a safety passion that provides the lender, within the match of insolvency of the debtor, the correct to expropriate the valuables over which the loan was once registered.

Pursuant to article 2808 of the Civil Code, a loan confers lenders the correct to expropriate the valuables sure as their credit score guaranty and be paid with the source of revenue of the expropriation worth, with privilege over another creditor who isn’t supported by way of the ensure.

A loan is mechanically terminated after two decades; due to this fact, in terms of loans of an extended length, the protection device will have to be renewed.

Mortgages are typically recorded at the belongings for an quantity upper than the mortgage quantity (normally double the quantity paid to the borrower) since the passion bills due, the passion on any arrears and another fees that the lender might face in convalescing the debt are taken under consideration.

Leasehold financing

Is financing to be had for floor (or head) rentals to your jurisdiction? How does the financing vary from financing for land possession transactions?

Financing for floor rentals is to be had, which doesn’t vary from financing for land possession transactions, apart from for the price of the mortgage quantity, since in financing for floor rentals, the price is calculated at the foundation of the degree of growth of the paintings.

To make a floor rent financeable, a loan encumbering the plot of land the place the valuables will likely be constructed is typically granted in favour of the lender, at the side of the project of hire to be paid by way of the tenant to the lender upon of entirety of the rented belongings.

Type of safety

What’s the way of making and perfecting a safety passion in actual property?

In step with article 2827 of the Civil Code, a loan will have to be registered at the true property registry of where the place a belongings is positioned. If so, registration perfects the ensure for all criminal functions, together with rights of precedence over different rights at the belongings (sale, attachments, expropriations, and many others).


Are third-party actual property value determinations required by way of lenders for his or her underwriting of loans? Are there govt or trade requirements for value determinations? Will have to appraisers have explicit {qualifications} or required govt or trade certifications? Who is needed to reserve the appraisal?

3rd-party actual property value determinations are typically required by way of lenders for his or her underwriting of loans in actual property offers. There are not any govt licensed usual as such; then again, trade requirements exist, and appraisers will have to have explicit {qualifications} and trade certifications (as equipped underneath UNI 11558/2014 and UNI/PdR 19/16). Appraisers are typically certified engineers or architects.

Value determinations are in most cases asked by way of and addressed to lenders, however the related prices are borne by way of the debtors.

Prison necessities

What will be the ramifications of a lender from some other jurisdiction creating a mortgage secured by way of collateral to your jurisdiction? What’s the type of lien paperwork to your jurisdiction? What different problems would you be aware to your purchasers?

Normally talking, the availability of finance underneath any shape constitutes limited task in Italy and is typically reserved to banks and different monetary intermediaries maintaining a sound lending licence. This situation applies without reference to whether or not the mortgage is secured by way of collateral over the valuables of the borrower.

Safety over actual property belongings will have to be registered by way of a certified notary public and calls for a written registration be aware. A loan typically draws stamp responsibility ranging between €200 and zero.5 in step with cent of the assured quantity, plus a 2 in step with cent loan tax. Sure qualifyng lenders, together with Italian banks, might elect to use a nil.25 in step with cent replace tax on medium and long-term loans, carried out in lieu of alternative oblique taxes (ie, registration tax, loan and cadastral tax, stamp tax and public concession tax) differently appropriate at the mortgage and the relateing securities and promises. The election is to be had provided that the mortgage has a adulthood exceeding 18 months (ie, medium/long-term adulthood) and is made (ie, completed) in Italy. The artificial tax is levied at the quantity made to be had by way of the financial institution and is carried out simplest upon explicit possibility exercised by way of the events within the relavent financing settlement.

Along with loan over actual property belongings, different kinds of safety (extra similar to a not unusual regulation floating rate) are to be had for sure kinds of mortgage agreements (particular liens). A different lien could also be created over some categories of property (provide or long run vegetation and equipment, concessions and kit; uncooked fabrics, work-in-progress and completed items, inventory, farm animals and products; items bought with the proceeds of the related financing; and provide or long run receivables coming up from the sale of the property or items indexed above). A different lien will have to even be registered by way of a certified notary public by way of a deed in writing.

Mortgage rates of interest

How are rates of interest on business and high-value belongings loans recurrently set (as regards to not unusual benchmark rates of interest (eg, SOFR, Ameribor), central financial institution charges, and many others)? What interest rate is legally impermissible to your jurisdiction and what are the results if a mortgage exceeds the legally permissible fee?

Rates of interest on business and high-value belongings loans are in most cases set by way of connection with a floating fee (eg, EURIBOR) plus a variety (ie, margin). Rate of interest is matter to a usury cap. The cap on rates of interest, which is above the usury fee, is calculated by way of elevating the typical general efficient fee by way of one-quarter and including a margin of an extra 4 proportion issues; the adaptation between the ceiling fee and the typical fee can’t exceed 8 proportion issues (this calculation way was once offered by way of Decree Legislation No. 70/2011, which changed article 2, paragraph 4, of Legislation No. 108/1996).

Will have to the mortgage supply an rate of interest that exceeds ab origine the usury ceiling fee, no passion is due pursuant to article 1815, paragraph 2 of the Civil Code, while will have to the mortgage supply an rate of interest that exceeds the usury ceiling fee all through the lifetime of the mortgage, the exceeding passion isn’t due.

Mortgage default and enforcement

How are treatments in opposition to a debtor in default enforced to your jurisdiction? Is one motion enough to grasp all kinds of collateral? What’s the period of time for foreclosures and in what cases can a lender carry a foreclosures continuing? Are there restrictions at the kinds of criminal movements that can be introduced by way of lenders?

Various kinds of enforcement complaints could also be initiated in opposition to a debtor in default. All movements will have to be in keeping with judgments or different criminal tools recognized jointly as enforceable tools or tools completed by way of government (enforceable tools). Enforcement may also be effected simplest the place there’s a legitimate authority to execute and in the case of a duty this is sure, the quantum of which has been fastened and that has fallen due.

Enforceable tools are:

  • judgments and measures enforceable pursuant to Italian regulation;
  • promissory notes, in addition to different negotiable tools enforceable pursuant to Italian regulation (eg, assessments);
  • non-public regulation tools, together with contracts, deeds and different non-public regulation tools completed earlier than a notary, however simplest so far as pecuniary credit are involved.


Sooner than imposing an enforceable device, the device will have to be made judicially executory and served to the debtor with a proper request to pay the quantity due inside a length of no longer lower than 10 days after the formal request is served. Relating to non-payment by way of the time limit indicated within the formal request, the creditor can get started enforcement complaints by way of:

  • seizing the debtor’s property, which is able to then be auctioned underneath the pass judgement on’s instructions to allow the creditor to get well his or her credit score during the public sale proceeds; or
  • seizing the debtor’s finances or credit owned by way of a 3rd celebration, which the pass judgement on will then allocate to the creditor.

Mortgage deficiency claims

Are lenders entitled to get well a cash judgment in opposition to the borrower or guarantor for any deficiency between the exceptional mortgage steadiness and the quantity recovered within the foreclosures? Are there cut-off dates on a lender in quest of a deficiency judgment? Are there any barriers at the quantity or way of calculation of the deficiency?

Lenders are entitled to pursue debtors for any deficiency between the matured, due and payable (together with passion) quantity of the mortgage and the quantity recovered during the foreclosures, as much as such time because the statute of limitation applies. The statute of limitation, then again, does no longer run to the level that the lender pursues the borrower for the whole price.

Coverage of collateral

What movements can a lender take to give protection to its collateral till it has ownership of the valuables?

The lender does no longer take criminal ownership of the valuables however can begin criminal complaints to get well the due quantity. Landlords could also be matter to the number of hire by way of the lender, who might both method the tenant immediately, ordering her or him to pay the due quantities into his or her personal account, or assault the owner’s present account into which the sums are credited.


Would possibly safety paperwork supply for recourse to all the property of the borrower? Is recourse in most cases restricted to the collateral and does that experience importance in a chapter or insolvency submitting? Is non-public recourse to guarantors restricted to movements similar to chapter submitting, sale of the mortgaged or hypothecated belongings or further financing encumbering the mortgaged or hypothecated belongings or possession pursuits within the borrower?

The level of the recourse will particularly rely on the kind of safety this is created however is typically restricted to the particular asset over which a lien is created: this is a actual property asset for mortgages, the stocks of an organization in terms of a pledge over company capital, the receivables present and particularly assigned in terms of an project of receivables by means of safety, the pledged financial institution accounts in a pledge over checking account, and many others.

The particular lien, to be had just for decided on kinds of loans, can safe a much wider collection of items and receivables which can be strictly attached to the industrial task of the grantor; then again, the ones items and receivables will have to be personally indexed in a deed this is filed by way of a notary public with a public sign up.

In any case, with a private ensure, the guarantor is liable with all its present property, provide and long run.

The judicial loan – which is a loan constituted by way of a pass judgement on after an unhappy creditor’s request – may also be registered on all of the immovable belongings belonging to the debtor. Alternatively, banks are given the opportunity of beginning or proceeding, even after the declaration of chapter, person govt movements at the mortgaged property used to ensure loan loans, whilst the liquidator would simplest have the correct to intrude within the execution for the portion exceeding that assigned to the financial institution. Passive or energetic legitimacy is attributed solely to the liquidator.

Money control and reserves

Is it standard to require a money control gadget and do lenders in most cases take reserves? For what functions are reserves typically required?

Money reserves are utilized in sure financing preparations and might represent a standard characteristic, relying at the explicit phrases and traits of the deal. They’re typically purported to hide monetary liabilities or contingencies.

Credit score improvements

What different kinds of credit score improvements are not unusual? What about varieties of ensure?

A number of the collateral promises are proper of lien, mortgages and pledges. Amongst non-public promises are, amongst different issues, surety, omnibus surety and the first-demand ensure.

Patronage letters, factoring agreements and assortment mandates also are recurrently completed.

Mortgage covenants

What covenants are recurrently required by way of the lender in mortgage paperwork?

Mortgage agreements typically include units of covenants, which might be dependent at the explicit financing product (actual property, leverage, restructuring, acquisitions and many others). Those are typically consistent with Mortgage Marketplace Affiliation requirements and will come with monetary covenants, covenants in the case of the true property property, restrictive covenants and data covenants.

Monetary covenants

What are standard monetary covenants required by way of lenders?

Relying at the mortgage merchandise and the particular offers which can be negotiated, monetary covenants could also be in keeping with mortgage to worth, debt-service protection, debt yields or a mixture thereof. Monetary reporting typically happens on a quarterly foundation, with the supply of compliance certificate ready by way of the borrower and its monetary advisers.

Secured movable (non-public) belongings

What are the necessities for advent and perfection of a safety passion in movable (non-public) belongings? Is a ‘keep watch over’ settlement important to best possible a safety passion and, if that is so, what is needed?

The advent of a safety passion will likely be strictly depending on the kind of property which can be mortgaged and the kind of safety report that the particular asset calls for. Safety paperwork all require written agreements between the events, however sure property (eg, actual property, company quotas, corporate apparatus and logos) require registration with a publicly held sign up.

The advent of safety calls for the lifestyles of a sound debt legal responsibility between the lender and the borrower at the foundation of a written settlement and typically calls for that the protection be created by way of a deed bearing an authorized date, in step with Italian regulation, as a way to make it efficient in the case of 1/3 events and chapter complaints.

Unmarried goal entity (SPE)

Do lenders require that each and every borrower be an SPE? What are the necessities to create and take care of an SPE? Is there an idea of an unbiased director of SPEs and, if that is so, what’s the goal? If the unbiased director is in position to forestall a chapter or insolvency submitting, has the concept that been upheld?

Lenders in Italian offers don’t essentially require on each instance that each and every borrower be an SPE; then again, it’s not unusual to undertake this type of shape, in particular for abnormal company transactions (eg, acquisition financings). It might probably be offering lenders higher coverage, given the less collection of collectors competing in a possible chapter submitting.

Alternatively, an SPE is structured as a typical corporate in Italy (typically a restricted legal responsibility corporate) and isn’t matter to a unique statutory regime, so the chapter remoteness is sought necessarily by way of adverse covenants within the financing preparations.

It’s not very important to nominate an unbiased director; then again, lenders steadily require that the stocks of the SPE be pledged in favour of the lender as a warranty in case of default and with the impact that vote casting rights transfer to the lender in case of default.

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